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8 best key points of bending stainless steel tubing process

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angle roll for bending stainless steel tubing

Bending stainless steel

Stainless steel bending is a functional, aesthetic way to complete many metal design tasks. Bending is often preferable to weld or mechanical connections, as when a seamless design is required, or there is concern about the crevices created by mechanical joints. Crevices can be particularly problematic for the food and pharmaceutical industries since they may introduce contamination.

A variety of methods can be used for bending stainless steel tubing. If the bend has a large radius, the tubing can be curved with a profile bending machine (also called section benders, profile benders, or angle rolls.)

Further reading10 Things Everyone Should Know About Curved Steel

How hard is it to bend stainless steel tubes?

Steel tube bending can be very difficult due to the hardness of the material. However, choosing the right fabricator with proper knowledge of processes and tooling can help make the process more seamless.

Is mandrel tube bending better than roll bending?

The method you choose depends on your bending requirements. Mandrel bending is preferred for bending operations with tighter radii to prevent flattening, wrinkles, and kinks. On the other hand, roll bending is ideal for thinner tubes with a large bend radius.

What are the applications of stainless steel tubing?

Many industries use stainless steel tubes for various applications. They are used in home appliances, automotive and aerospace parts, electronic devices, plumbing systems, medical devices, and many more.

How to bend 304 stainless steel tubing

304 stainless steel tubing is a kind of hollow round steel, which is widely used in various architectural decoration fields such as stair handrails, fence railings, courtyard gates, and so on. In the process of bending, it is required to be smooth, accurate in angle, and not burst.

304 Stainless tubing can be very difficult to bend or form, especially at larger diameters, because it is harder, less malleable, and tends to have thinner walls in relation to tubing diameter than other tubing materials. Other materials in which wall thicknesses are thin relative to tube diameter may be similarly difficult to bend and form.

At present, there are two methods for making stainless steel pipes into arcs on the market.

cold bending

Generally, a cold bending machine is used for multiple rolling forming.
weakness is:
Steel pipe diameter is limited
If the bending radius is too small, the diameter of the steel pipe is prone to deformation

hot bending

Fill the stainless steel tube with sand, fill it up, and bend it with high-temperature heat treatment. This method is the most ideal;

The disadvantage is: that the hot bending process cost is too high, the cost is large, and it is not suitable for mass production

what is pipe bending
What is pipe bending?

4 key points of bending stainless steel tubing process

When processing stainless steel pipes, stainless steel tube manufacturers should carefully consider the material and type of stainless steel pipes:

  • If the unit size of the stainless steel tube is thicker, the bending force required will be greater, and as the thickness of the stainless steel tube increases, the bending force in the selection of the bending equipment should also be greater.
  • Under the unit size of stainless steel tube processing and bending, the greater the tensile strength, the smaller the elongation rate, so the greater the required bending force, the greater the bending angle.
  • If the thickness of the stainless steel tube corresponds to the bending radius in the design drawing, the unfolded size of a bent workpiece should be the addition of the right-angled sides minus the thickness of two stainless steel tubes, so that the design accuracy requirements can be fully met.
  • If the yield strength of the stainless steel pipe is larger, the elastic recovery will be larger. If the angle of 90 degrees of the bending part can be obtained, the angle of the pressing knife should be designed smaller.
bending stainless steel tubing
bending stainless steel tubing

4 Considerations for Bending Stainless Steel Tubing

When pondering how to bend steel tubing, you must consider some structural considerations and factors. The most important ones include:

Bend Radius

Bending steel tubing often requires you to achieve a tight radius. In most cases, the thinning of the bend’s outer wall often results in a distorted bend. Employing a mandrel for support can help to prevent this. This means that mandrel tube bending is the most reliable method in this case.

Sometimes, achieving a tight radius might cause the steel to go beyond its elastic limits. This often leads to deformations like wrinkles and humps. Three-roll bending or rotary draw bending is the advisable method in such situations.

Further Reading: Angle Roll: 5 Tips for Choose the Best Angle Roller

Moreover, tighter bend radii often require you to apply force more carefully. A 180-degree bend may be feasible depending on the tube’s inner diameter and thickness. However, a broader “U” shape may be needed to preserve the structural integrity and the interior shape.

Yield Strength

Another essential consideration for stainless steel tubing bending is yield strength. It is one of the characteristics of steel materials that may give the likelihood of spring back-formation. Materials with higher yield strength will have a greater elastic to plastic strain ratio. Such materials will also show more spring back than those with lower yield strength.

Therefore, it is vital to determine the yield strength of your steel material before bending. Every bend gives a reasonable amount of strain. Therefore, the yield strength should be considered with respect to the specific amount of strain expected.

Material Thickness

Material thickness variations are a great challenge when it comes to bending stainless steel tubes. It particularly plays a significant impact when fabricators try to achieve specific bending tolerances. The gauge of various stainless steel is often talked about with respect to averages. However, the actual material thickness falls within a specific range in reality.

Therefore, a slight variation in thickness can significantly affect the bend angle by some degrees. This often affects results, especially when you need tight tolerances. It is essential to know that some materials may need more bending power than others during custom tube fabrications. Thicker stainless steel grades will require greater force than thinner ones.

The strain involved in bending thicker materials around given radii is higher than that of thinner materials around the same radii. The thicker the walls, the higher the pressure the tube can withstand. Likewise, tubes with thinner walls are more susceptible to collapse during bending.

Thus, it is advisable to set the bending power right to prevent inconsistencies and material deformation. You must choose the proper process and set the machine appropriately.

Welded Tubing vs. Seamless Tubing

Both seamless and welded tubing can be bent. However, seamless tubing often bends better if the desired radius is tight. On the other hand, the thinner walls of welded tubing make them useful for larger diameter applications. The seam of welded pipes may interfere with the consistency of bends. This is due to the stress concentration point that forms on the tube.

Stress concentration gives welded tubing 20% less working pressure than seamless tubing. We cannot also overlook the possibility of improper weld forming, leading to the tube not being perfectly round. This prevents proper bending of welded tubing.

Bending Stainless Steel Channel
Bending Stainless Steel Channel

bending stainless steel

Stainless steels come in a variety of grades with unique benefits, Section bending machine can bend stainless steel tubes, pipes, beams, bars, angles, channels, and other specialized shapes for:

  • Food & pharmaceutical processing
  • Medical & hospital industries
  • Vessels & storage tanks
  • Marine industry
  • Subsea & offshore equipment
  • Transportation
  • Construction materials & architectural accents
  • Railings & roofing supports
  • Commercial lighting
  • Boilers & HVAC
  • Agriculture
  • Aerospace products
  • Safety & security industries

advantages of stainless steel for bending

The mechanical properties and features of stainless steel vary by grade.

BIT series profile bending machine can adaptably bend steel to a large or tight radius. Because of its strength and work hardening rate, stainless steel bending requires more robust, high-powered equipment and tooling than carbon steel bending.

While stainless steel may cost more than other material (such as aluminum profiles) options on the front end, its strength and durability lend proven value over the course of its lifecycle. Further benefits of stainless steel for bending include:

  • Corrosion & rust immunity
  • Extreme temperature resistance
  • Impact resistance
  • Attractive, modern appearance
  • Hygienic for food & medical use
  • Range of diameters & wall sizes
  • Flexible fabrication & machinability
  • Recyclability & sustainability
  • Value over the lifecycle
  • Versatility (pliable or strong, depending upon the grade)

Further reading: Stainless Steel Pipe Sizes