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Off-Axis Bending

We’ve covered everything you need to know about the Off-Axis Bending Process. You should also check out our Profile Bending Machine or Bending Process page.

Off-Axis Bending Machine

Off-axis bending, also known as conical rolling, is a specialized metal fabrication section bending process that deviates from conventional bending methods. It involves bending materials out of square and introducing a radius to them, creating complex curved shapes that are vital in various industries, from architecture to industrial equipment manufacturing. However, off-axis bending presents unique challenges and requires specialized techniques to achieve precise results while minimizing deformation. This article explores the intricacies of off-axis bending, its applications, and the techniques used to overcome its challenges.

Understanding Off-Axis Bending

Off-axis bending involves curving a member about a non-principal or non-geometric axis, resulting in a shape that is both curved and sloped. Unlike traditional bending methods that operate within a single plane, off-axis bending requires bending along multiple axes simultaneously. This presents challenges such as distortion and dimensional inaccuracies, especially when working with non-round materials.

Challenges and Techniques

One of the primary challenges in off-axis bending is limiting distortion and ensuring dimensional accuracy. Specialized tooling and techniques are required to achieve consistent bending results. Most off-axis bends are fabricated with a constant rotation relative to the plane of curvature, although variable twists along the member axis are also possible. To mitigate distortion, tooling is designed to support the material throughout the bending process, ensuring uniform pressure distribution and minimizing deformation.

Applications of Off-Axis Bending

Off-axis bending finds application in a wide range of industries and structural applications. In architecture, it is commonly used for roofs, domes, canopies, and arched structures, where curved and sloped members are essential for achieving unique architectural designs. In industrial settings, off-axis bending is used to create complex shapes for equipment such as funnels, transitions, and stacks. The versatility of off-axis bending allows for the creation of custom shapes and structures tailored to specific design requirements.

Value-Added Services

Off-axis bending services often include value-added operations such as beveling, welding, punching, drilling, and cutting. These additional services enhance the versatility of off-axis bending, allowing for the creation of fully fabricated components ready for assembly.

Case Studies

Several notable projects demonstrate the capabilities and versatility of off-axis bending. For example, the barrel vault skylight at the Kimmel Center for the Performing Arts in Philadelphia showcases the precision of off-axis bending, with steel tubing rolled to radius tolerances within 1/16″. Similarly, the Milwaukee School of Engineering’s Student Center features heavy tubing bent off-axis and slightly helical, demonstrating the flexibility of off-axis bending in creating complex architectural elements. At Little Village High School in Chicago, off-axis bending was used to create a tapered tower from rectangular tubing, highlighting the technique’s adaptability to diverse design requirements.


Off-axis bending is a specialized metal fabrication technique that offers unique shaping capabilities for creating complex curved shapes. While it presents challenges such as distortion and dimensional inaccuracies, specialized techniques and tooling can overcome these obstacles to achieve precise bending results. With applications ranging from architecture to industrial equipment manufacturing, off-axis bending plays a crucial role in creating distinctive and functional structures tailored to specific design requirements.