CNC machinists play a critical role in modern manufacturing, where precision and accuracy are paramount. To ensure that the finished components meet strict quality standards, machinists rely on a variety of measurement tools. These tools help them assess dimensional accuracy, surface finish, and other critical aspects of the machining process.
Surface plates are large, flat, and accurately machined platforms used as reference surfaces for measuring workpieces. CNC machinists use surface plates in conjunction with various measuring tools to perform precise dimensional inspections.
Surface Plate Features
|Flatness||Offers a flat and level reference surface for accurate measurements.|
|Stability||Made from materials with excellent dimensional stability and rigidity.|
|Standardized Sizes||Available in various standard sizes to accommodate different workpieces.|
The Go/No-Go gauge, also known as a plug gauge and ring gauge, is a simple but effective tool for inspecting the conformity of a workpiece. It consists of two gauges: the Go gauge and the No-Go gauge. The Go gauge checks if the workpiece is within the acceptable tolerance range, while the No-Go gauge verifies if the dimensions fall outside the acceptable limits.
Go/No-Go Gauge Features
|Pass/Fail Inspection||Provides a quick pass or fail indication for dimensional conformity.|
|User-Friendly||Easy to use, making it a popular tool for shop floor inspections.|
|Cost-Effective||Offers an economical solution for rapid inspection tasks.|
The Vernier caliper is a versatile hand-held measuring tool that allows CNC machinists to measure dimensions with high accuracy. It consists of two jaws, an upper and a lower, and a sliding Vernier scale that provides fine measurement increments. Vernier calipers can measure inner and outer dimensions, depths, and step heights.
- Vernier calipers: first perfected in the 1600s, vernier calipers consist of a flat bar along which two opposing tips slide. The distance between the tips is measured using an accurately graded scale.
- Dial calipers: dial calipers function similarly to Vernier calipers, but display measurements on a simple dial, making them easier to read.
- Digital calipers: like dial calipers, digital calipers offer an easy-to-read display–in this case, a digital screen.
Vernier Caliper Features
|Measurement Range||Typically 0-6 inches (0-150 mm)|
|Resolution||0.001 inches (0.02 mm)|
|Accuracy||+/- 0.001 inches (0.02 mm)|
|Application||Measuring lengths, diameters, and depths of workpiece|
Micrometers are precision instruments used for highly accurate measurements. They offer greater sensitivity and resolution compared to Vernier calipers and are ideal for measuring small dimensions with utmost precision.
|Outside Micrometer||Measures outer dimensions, such as diameters of cylindrical workpieces.|
|Inside Micrometer||Measures inner dimensions, such as the bore diameter of a hole.|
|Depth Micrometer||Measures the depth of holes and slots in workpieces.|
|Digital Micrometer||Modern micrometers equipped with a digital display for easy reading and data recording.|
A height gauge is used to measure the vertical distance between the base of the gauge and a specific point on the workpiece. It is commonly used for scribing lines, setting workpiece heights, and checking the accuracy of machined features.
Height Gauge Types
|Vernier Height Gauge||Analog gauge with a sliding Vernier scale for precise height measurements.|
|Digital Height Gauge||Modern height gauges with digital displays for quick and accurate height readings.|
Dial indicators, also known as dial gauges, are used to measure small linear displacements. They are attached to a magnetic base or a mechanical arm and provide precise readings of the workpiece’s surface deviations.
Dial Indicator Types
|Dial Test Indicator||Smaller dial indicators used for more sensitive measurements.|
|Dial Plunger Gauge||Used to measure small distances, depths, and variations in a bore.|
Thread gauges are essential tools for measuring the pitch diameter and thread characteristics of screws, bolts, and nuts. They ensure the correct fit and interchangeability of threaded components.
Thread Gauge Types
|Screw Pitch Gauge||Measures the pitch of external and internal threads.|
|Thread Plug Gauge||Checks the internal threads of nuts or tapped holes.|
|Thread Ring Gauge||Verifies the external threads of screws or bolts.|
Air gages, also known as air gauges or air plug gauges, are instruments used for measuring dimensions such as bore diameter, groove width, and other internal or external features. They operate based on the principles of air flow and pressure, providing highly sensitive and accurate measurements.
Air Gage Features
|Non-Destructive||Does not cause damage to delicate or sensitive workpiece surfaces.|
|Sensitive||Offers precise measurements even for minute dimensional variations.|
|Repeatable||Provides consistent and repeatable measurements for quality control.|
Coordinate Measuring Machine (CMM):
CMMs are advanced measurement systems used to assess the geometric features of complex workpieces. They use precision sensors to collect data points and generate a comprehensive 3D model of the component, allowing for thorough inspection and quality control.
|Measurement Range||Varies based on the CMM size, from small to large workpieces.|
|Accuracy||High precision, ranging from micrometers to sub-micrometer measurements.|
|Application||Inspection of intricate and geometrically complex components.|
Laser Scanning Arms
Laser scanning arms, also known as portable coordinate measuring machines (CMM), are versatile tools used for non-contact measurement. These devices use laser technology to collect thousands of data points, creating a detailed 3D representation of the workpiece’s surface. CNC machinists can use laser scanning arms to inspect complex geometries, reverse engineer components, and perform rapid and accurate inspections.
Laser Scanning Arm Features
|Non-Contact||Does not require physical contact with the workpiece.|
|High Accuracy||Offers precise measurements with micrometer-level accuracy.|
|Portable||Can be easily transported to different locations for on-site inspections.|
The tools used by CNC machinists for measuring are indispensable for achieving accurate and high-quality manufacturing outcomes. Vernier calipers, micrometers, height gauges, dial indicators, thread gauges, and CMMs are just a few of the essential instruments employed in the machining process. By using these precision tools, CNC machinists can verify dimensional accuracy, surface finish, and other critical parameters, ensuring that the finished components meet the strictest quality standards. With a strong understanding of these measurement tools, CNC machinists play a crucial role in advancing modern manufacturing with precision and efficiency.