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Profile Bending Processes (4) – Laser Bending

What is laser bending?

Laser bending forming is a flexible forming technology that uses laser heating to realize workpieces. It is a new technology for bending metal profiles. Its basic principle is to use high-energy laser beams to scan the surface of metal pipes, and the thermal expansion of materials in the heating area will cause materials to accumulate. After the material is cooled, the heat-affected zone is the wedge-shaped compression deformation zone shown in Figure 1. The material in this area is shortened along the axial direction. take shape. Read More: Laser

The principle of laser bending
The principle of laser bending

Working principle

Corresponding to the heating and cooling stages, the laser bending forming of the pipe also undergoes two deformation stages reverse bending and forward bending respectively. After the laser scanning is finished, a large axial compression plastic is formed between the heating surface and the back material, and the resistance strain is poor. In this way, between the laser-irradiated side and the back side of the tube, due to different transverse shrinkages, there is a strain difference, which is manifested as the axial contraction of the scanning area on the laser-irradiated side and the axial elongation of the back side, so the tube There is a positive bend towards the laser beam. Therefore, the final intrinsic mechanism of the process is the temperature gradient mechanism.

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Process parameters of laser bending forming

The process parameters that affect the laser bending of metal tubular parts mainly include laser power, scanning angle, scanning times, spot diameter, and scanning speed. Within a certain range of values, increase the laser power, increase the scanning angle, increase the scanning times, and reduce the scanning speed. Any speed can increase the bending angle; increasing the spot diameter will decrease the bending angle.

Applications and deficiencies

Three-dimensional bending can be easily achieved by heating a specific area with a laser. This process also has some shortcomings, such as the difficulty in bending multi-cavity profiles, and the processing time is too long. Although the process is a heat-affected process, it does not have a detrimental effect on the mechanical properties of the material after processing.

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