What Aluminum Profile Thickness is Best for Stretch Forming?
Aluminum sheet thickness is important to stretch forming success. The wrong gauge of aluminum can cause failures that can range from torn edges to popping and cracking.
Why Does Aluminum Profile Thickness Matter?
Does the Aluminum Sheet Have to Be Preheated Before Stretch Forming?
The most common reason for preheating is to avoid surface tears and fractures during forming: This is because the metal at the inside bend radius will undergo more deformation than the outside radius and therefore overstretch, causing tearing and cracking.
If you bend anything harder than 5054 aluminum, you will need to anneal it by heating along the bend line. If you don’t, such hard aluminum will crack and break during forming.
Aluminum melts between 865 and 1,240 degrees F, so you obviously can’t heat it as much as steel. In some ways, aluminum heats bends and recrystallizes the way steel does, and in other ways, it responds very differently. When heated, aluminum tends to have a little more spring-back. You might achieve the desired bend angle and radius, but as soon as it cools, it springs back slightly more.
- Preheating softens the aluminum so that it is easier to form.
- An even temperature across the entire length of the material helps prevent part distortion due to uneven heating or cooling during forming.
- Preheating can reduce cracking or tearing in some materials by reducing spring back after forming or reducing internal stresses.
- An aluminum sheet is not a good thermal conductor, so the internal temperature of the sheet may be quite different from that of the external surface. The use of induction heating technology may result in higher material temperatures near the surface than at the core.
- The outer surface of the aluminum may be oxidized, and therefore heat will not readily penetrate the material. In some cases, it may be necessary to remove this oxide layer with a suitable cleaning agent or mechanical sanding before healing can begin. This does not apply to aluminum alloys that form a thin oxide film adherent to the material surface.
- When aluminum is heated, it undergoes a volume expansion of about 2 percent, but it only contracts by about 0.2 percent when it cools.
Can Aluminum Sheet Be Machined After Stretch Forming?
Yes. An aluminum sheet can be machined after stretch forming, but we recommend that you allow the part to stabilize for 1-2 weeks to relieve stresses in the material.
The machining requirements will depend on your design specifications, but you should remember that lower-alloy aluminum has better machining characteristics than higher-alloy aluminum.
What Kind of Bend Radius and Minimum Flange Height Can I Get with Stretch Forming?
Any 1:1 ratio of bend radius to stock thickness can be formed.
Routinely form parts with a 1/2″ bend radius and hold 0.005″-0.010″ minimum flange height on 0.064″ aluminum material. If the part geometry is such that it requires more tension than the standard 15%, can stretch up to 30% of the original material length.
Bend Radius and Flange Height Considerations
The achievable bend radius and minimum flange height in stretch forming depend on several factors, including the material properties, thickness of the sheet, tooling design, and the specific stretch forming process used. While stretch forming allows for greater flexibility in bending compared to some other methods, there are practical limits to consider. Let’s discuss these factors in more detail:
- Material Properties: The ductility of the material is a crucial factor. More ductile materials, like aluminum, can be stretch-formed with smaller radii and shorter flanges. Less ductile materials may require larger radii and taller flanges to avoid cracking or material failure during forming.
- Sheet Thickness: Thicker sheets may require larger bend radii and flange heights to avoid excessive stress concentration and deformation. Thinner sheets, on the other hand, can handle tighter radii and smaller flange heights.
- Tooling Design: The design of the forming die (tooling) plays a significant role. Smoother radii and well-designed tooling can allow for tighter bends and shorter flanges. Sharp angles and complex shapes may require larger radii to prevent material defects.
- Stretch Forming Process: Different stretch forming processes have varying capabilities. Some methods, such as roll forming, can achieve tighter radii and shorter flanges compared to other stretch forming techniques. Understanding the specific process you’re using is essential.
- Material Handling: Larger sheets or profiles may have limitations based on the equipment’s size and capacity. Handling and feeding the material through the forming equipment can impact the achievable bend radius and flange height.
As a general guideline, stretch forming can often achieve bend radii that are approximately 1.5 to 3 times the thickness of the sheet, depending on the factors mentioned above. Flange heights can also vary but are typically a few times the sheet thickness.
It’s essential to work closely with a knowledgeable stretch forming provider or engineer to determine the specific bend radii and flange heights that can be achieved for your application. They can analyze your material, geometry, and requirements to find the optimal parameters while ensuring the formed parts meet the desired quality standards. Additionally, conducting small-scale trials or prototypes can help verify the feasibility of the desired bend radius and flange height before full-scale production.